Before the legislation was passed, there were nearly one million hectares of privately owned Alaskan land. The natives also received $963 million, with land and money distributed among regional, urban and village tribal organizations to be used for the general. Some land redistributions took place under military jurisdiction during the war and shortly thereafter. However, federal and regional policy during the era of reconstruction emphasized wage work, not land ownership, for blacks. Almost the entire country assigned during the war was restored to its pre-war white owners. Several black communities have retained control of their land, and some families have received new land through a farm. In particular, black land ownership increased dramatically in Mississippi in the 19th century. The state had a lot of unded land behind river basins that had been built before the war. Most blacks acquired land through private transactions, with the property peaking in 1910 at 15,000,000 Acres (6,100,000 ha) before a prolonged financial recession caused problems that resulted in property loss for many. At the beginning of our present year, this plantation was stripped, in accordance with an order from our postmaster, of horses, mules, oxen and agricultural utensils, much of which had been captured by the undersigned and transferred to the lines of the Union; As a result of deprivation, we have obviously been reduced to the need to buy whatever is necessary for agriculture and, having so far managed to accomplish by far the most expensive and laborious part of our work, we are ready to do ginning, pressing, weighing, marking, etc. in a business order, if that is allowed.

The hope of «40 hectares and a mule» had been particularly prevalent since the beginning of 1865. The expectation of «40 Acres» came from the explicit terms of Sherman`s code and the Freedmen`s Bureau bill. The «mule» might simply have been added as an obvious necessity to achieve prosperity through agriculture. [93] («Forty acres» was a slogan that, although often appeared in formal statements, represented a multitude of different land and agricultural ownership regulations.) [169] The 1862 Act authorizing the Ministry of Finance to sell many land conquered because of punitive taxes. In total, the government was now claiming 76,775 hectares of Sea Island land. [55] Listeners arrived in Port-Royal and began to evaluate the properties, now occupied by blacks and missionaries. [56] The stakes were high: the cotton harvest on Sea Island was a lucrative asset for northern investors. [57] The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971 established Alaska claims on 44 million hectares of federally owned land by transferring the title to twelve Alaskan regional companies and more than 200 local village societies. Howard acted quickly on Speed`s permission, ordered an inventory of land available for redistribution, and opposed attempts by white Southerners to reclaim property. [121] [122] At its peak in 1865, the Freedmen`s Bureau controlled 800,000 to 900,000 hectares of planted land, which previously belonged to slave owners.

[123] This area represented 0.2% of the southern area; Finally, Johnson`s proclamation required the Bureau to assign most of it to its former owners. [117] The term «40 Acres and a mule» symbolizes the broken promise that the reconstruction policy would provide economic justice to African Americans. [248] [249] Shermans Sonderfeldordnungn No. 15, arrested on 16 January 1865, ordered the officers to settle these refugees in the maritime islands and inland: 400,000 hectares, divided into 40 hectares of plots. [1] [80] Although mules (animals used for ploughing) were not mentioned[1], some of their beneficiaries received them from the army. [81] Such conspiracies have been commonly referred to as «Blackacres,» which could have a basis for their birth in contract law. [C