Pending the entry into force of such a separate agreement, ELL and BKK will use reasonable economic efforts to take or make all necessary, regular or advised measures under applicable laws, regulations and agreements to grant each other the rights and privileges of the accountable party to the relevant joint agreement. Risk sharing occurs when two parties identify and agree to share the loss as a result of the loss due to risk. This is typically the case for joint ventures (where owners share the shares of losses relative to their shares in the business), new businesses, and relationships in which each party shares effective operational control. Risks can be shared pro-rated, beyond a threshold, in successive layers or in combination with these «pièc-slicing» methods. Production sharing agreements were first used in Bolivia in the early 1950s, although their first implementation similar to today`s in Indonesia took place in the 1960s.  Today, they are often used in the Middle East and Central Asia. Data exchange is an important way to increase the capacity of researchers, scientists and policy makers to analyse data and translate it into meaningful reports and knowledge. Data sharing discourages duplication in data collection and fosters varied thinking and cooperation, as others are able to use the data to answer questions that the original data collectors may not have considered. Data sharing agreements must include provisions on access and dissemination. It is not desirable to enter into a data-sharing agreement to disclose data protection information, as non-federal organizations are not subject to data protection law. Similarly, it is worth drawing the attention of the non-federal organization to the fact that federal authorities may be forced to disclose information under the FOIA. Production-sharing agreements can be beneficial for governments in countries that lack the expertise and/or capital to develop their resources and that foreign companies want to gain. They can be very profitable deals for the oil companies involved, but they often present a considerable risk.
Performance-based agreements, such as berantai RSC, focus more on production and recovery rates compared to production-sharing contracts favored by oil companies. The focus on optimizing production capacity in peripheral areas can be extended to contracts that govern the recovery of major oil fields in an industry with rapidly depleted resources. At present, Petronas` recovery factor is about 26% for major oil fields, which can be further improved through optimized production techniques and knowledge exchange.  It is important to recognize that the process of setting up data sharing agreements from one country to another and the nature of the data shared and the agencies sharing the data is different. As has already been said, PPE can be complicated. The parties often disagree on different parts of the treaty. Given that both parties strive to maximize revenue and minimize risk, it`s no surprise that agreements that seemed pretty clear when signing receive different interpretations from an under-stressed party. In the absence of strong intellectual property rights that protect data and databases in the United States, data-sharing agreements work best when they are part of a broader agreement between research partners. An individual agreement on data sharing should not replace the larger agreement between the partners, but complement and support a particular aspect of the broader agreement. You can find a detailed overview of the role of a data sharing agreement within a large enterprise between research partners under Data Sharing: Creating Agreements, Paige Backlund Jarquín MPH, Colorado Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute & Rocky Mountain Prevention Research Center. . .